Main Article Content


Clinical supervision is one of the best supervisory models that is user - friendly to school heads in supervising teachers’ professional practices. This paper examined teachers’ perception of school heads’ teaching and learning post - observation practices in improving teaching professional relations in public secondary schools in Tanzania. A mixed-methods and case research was conducted in Njombe Region, Tanzania. The study employed 122 respondents, whereby, 94 filled in the questionnaires and 28 participated in the semi - structured interviews and FGDs. The SPSS version 25 aided the analysis of quantitative data and qualitative data on the other hand were analysed through content analysis. The results show that 57.4% (n=70) of participants were male, of which 95.7% (n = 67) were teachers and  4.3% (n = 3) school heads. There were 42.6% (n = 52) of participants were female, of which 98.0% (n = 51) teachers and 2.0% (n = 1) school heads. There were 86.1% (n = 105) of participants with ages ranging from 25 and 50 years. Teachers positively perceived school heads’ post - observation practices (p < 0.05). However, unlike students, no statistical significant difference was observed in teachers’ working experiences regarding teachers' teaching profession relationships among themselves and school heads. It is concluded that school heads’ post - observation practices improve teachers’ professional relationships and could be practiced in supervising teachers in Tanzanian public secondary schools. Post - observation practices of school heads impart professional relationship skills to teachers. Teachers with professional relationship skills motivate students to participatory teaching and learning practice that contribute for an academic achievement.


Clinical supervision Post - observation practices Stages of clinical supervision

Article Details

How to Cite
Chaula, L., Lawrent, G., & Iramba, I. F. W. (2022). School Heads’ Post Observation Practices in Tanzania: Feedback Implications for Teachers. International Journal of Educational Administration, Management, and Leadership, 3(2), 41-54.


  1. Bachtiar, M., Wahira, & Nurochmah, A. (2019). Need of developing clinical supervision model at headmaster of primary school in Gowa district. 4th International Conference on Education and Management, 381, 130–134.
  2. Bello, A. T., & Olaer, J. H. (2020). Influence of clinical supervision of department heads on the instructional competence of secondary school teachers. Asian Journal of Education and Social Studies, 12(3), 42–50.
  3. Bencherab, A., & Al Maskari, A. (2021). Clinical Supervision: A genius tool for teachers’ professional growth. The Universal Academic Research Journal, 3(2), 51–57.
  4. Buzuzi, G., & Nyaumwe, L. J. (2014). Mathematics teachers’ perceptions on clinical supervision. International Journal of Educational Sciences, 7(1), 229–239.
  5. Chinedu, O. (2021). Role of instructional supervision on teachers’ effectiveness in secondary schools in Enugu State. Global Journal of Education and Humanities, 1(1), 26–34.
  6. Cogan, M. (1973). Clinical supervision. Houghton Mifflin.
  7. Cresswell, J. W., & Plano Clack, V. L. (2018). Designing and conducting mixed methods research (3rd ed.). Sage Publication,Inc.
  8. Education International and UNESCO. (2019). Global framework of professional teaching standards. In Education International. Education International.
  9. Falender, C. A. (2014). Clinical supervision in a competency-based era. South African Journal of Psychology, 44(1), 6–17.
  10. Goldhammer, R. (1969). Clinical supervision. Holt, Rinehart and Winston.
  11. Goldhammer, R., Anderson, R. H., & Krajewski, R. J. (1980). Clinical supervision: Special methods for the supervision of teachers. Holt, Rinehart & Winston.
  12. Gottschalk, B., & Hopwood, N. (2022). Professional learning in clinical supervision: Highlighting knowledge work. Journal of Workplace Learning.
  13. Grimmett, P. P. (1981). Clinical supervision and teacher thought processes. Canadian Journal of Education, 6(4), 23–39.
  14. Gürsoy, E., Kesner, J. E., & Salihoğlu, U. M. (2016a). Clinical supervision model in teaching practice: Does it make a difference in supervisors’ performance? Australian Journal of Teacher Education, 41(11), 61–76.
  15. Gürsoy, E., Kesner, J. E., & Salihoğlu, U. M. (2016b). Clinical supervision model in teaching practice: Does it make a difference in supervisors’ performance? Australian Journal of Teacher Education, 41(11), 61–76.
  16. Husain, H., Ghavifekr, S., Rosden, N. A., & Hamat, Z. W. (2019). Clinical supervision: Towards effective classroom teaching. Malaysian Online Journal of Educational Sciences, 7(October), 30–42.
  17. Husbands, C. (2011). Clinical supervision and teacher development: pre ‐ service and in-service applications. Journal of Teachers’ Professional Development, 15(1), 125–126. 10.1080/13664530.2011.555231
  18. Kayıkçı, K., Yılmaz, O., & Şahin, A. (2017). The views of educational supervisors on clinical supervision. Journal of Education and Practice, 8(21), 159–168.
  19. Khaef, E., & Karimnia, A. (2021). Effects of implementing clinical supervision model on supervisors’ teaching perspectives and qualifications: Acase study in an EFL context. Education Research International, 2021, 1–11.
  20. Lawrent, G. (2018). Secondary education expansion in Tanzania: Policy and practice implications for teachers’ sense of efficacy. The University of Waikato.
  21. Makunja, G. (2016). Challenges facing teachers in implementing competence-based curriculum in Tanzania: The case of community secondary schools in Morogoro municipality. Internation Journal of Education and Social Science, 3(5), 30–37.
  22. Marshall, C., & Rossman, G. B. (2016). Designing qualitative research (Sixth). SAGE Publication, Inc.
  23. Mellon, C. (2022). Lost and found: an exploration of the professional identity of primary teachers during the Covid-19 pandemic. Journal for Multicultural Education, 16(1), 77–89.
  24. Mette, I. M., & Riegel, L. (2018). Supervision, systems thinking, and the impact of American school reform efforts on instructional leadership. Journal of Cases in Educational Leadership, 21(4), 34–51.
  25. Mohajan, H. K. (2017, October). Two criteria for good measurements in research: Validity and reliability. Munich Personal RePEc Archive, 83458, 1–31.
  26. Moswela, B., & Mphale, L. M. (2015). Barriers to clinical supervision practices in Botswana schools. Journal of Education and Training Studies, 3(6), 61–70.
  27. Mugenda, O. M., & Mugenda, A. G. (2013). Research methods: Quantitative and qualitative approaches. ACTS Press.
  28. Mwesiga, A., & Okendo, E. O. (2018). Effectiveness of heads of schools in supervising teachers’ teaching activities in secondary schools in Kagera region, Tanzania. International Journal of Scientific Research and Management, 6(04), 91–107.
  29. Nwankwoala, H. N. L. (2020). Relationship between instructional supervision and teachers’ job performance in public senior secondary schools in Rivers State. International Journal of Institutional Leadership, Policy and Management, 2(4), 855–877.
  30. Paker, T. (1995). Clinical supervision as in-service teacher development. Journal of Faculty of Education, 1(11), 39–53.
  31. Reavis, C. A. (1976, February). Clinical supervision: A timely approach. Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development.
  32. Reid, H., & Soan, S. (2019). Providing support to senior managers in schools via‘ clinical’ supervision: A purposeful, restorative professional and personal developmental space developmental space. Professional Development in Education, 45(1), 59–72.
  33. Segal, D. L., & Coolidge, F. L. (2018). Reliability. In Sage encyclopedia of lifespan human development. SAGE Publication Ltd.
  34. Sergiovanni, T. (1982). Supervision of teaching (R. S. Brandt & N. S. Olson (eds.)). ERIC.
  35. Smith, S. U., Hayes, S., & Shea, P. (2017). A critical review of the use of Wenger’s community of practice (CoP) theoretical framework in online and blended learning research, 2000-2014. Online Learning, 21(1), 209–237.
  36. Sule, M. A., Sule, E. M., Igbineweka, P. O., & Okpa, O. E. (2020). Influence of clinical instructional supervisory practices on teachers’ professional efficiency in secondary schools in Calabar education zone, Nigeria. European Journal of Social Sciences, 60(3), 136–145.
  37. Taherdoost, H. (2016). Validity and reliability of the research instrument: How to test the validation of a questionnaire in a research. International Journal of Academic Research in Management, 5(3), 28–36.
  38. Tyagi, R. S. (2010). School-based instructional supervision and the effective professional development of teachers. A Journal of Comparative and International Education, 40(1), 111–125.
  39. United Republic of Tanzania. (2008). Education sector development programme(2008-2017). The Ministry of Education and Culture.
  40. United Republic of Tanzania. (2009). Guidelines for school supervision. Ministry of Education and Vocation Training.
  41. United Republic of Tanzania. (2011). Open performance review. The President’s Office Public Service Management.
  42. United Republic of Tanzania. (2013). Toolkit for head of schools in Tanzania: School improvement toolkit practical guide for head teachers and heads of school. The Ministry of Education and Vocational Training.
  43. United Republic of Tanzania. (2018). Education sector development programme (2016-2021). Ministry of Education, Science and Technology.
  44. Urio, P. (2018). Supervision of instructional programmes for improving students’ performance in secondary schools in Tanzania. University of Dar Es Salaam Journals, 36, 90–103.
  45. Veloo, A., Komuji, M. M. A., & Khalid, R. (2013). The effects of clinical supervision on the teaching performance of secondary school teachers. 3rd World Conference on Learning, Teaching and Education Leadership, 93(October), 35–39.
  46. Wenger, E. (1998a). Communities of practice: Learning, meaning and identity. Cambridge University Press.
  47. Wenger, E. (1998b). Communities of practice. Cambridge University Press.
  48. Williams, R. L. (2007). Clinical supervision: Moving from an evaluation to a supervision mode (Issue May). The Pennsylvania State University

DB Error: Unknown column 'Array' in 'where clause'